The Utmankhel Community

Introduction

The Utmankhel are Pashtun People and tribe living in north-east of Pakistan. The Utmankhel tribe is a part of the Karlani tribal confederacy. The Utmankhel are mostly living in Bajaur District, Malakand District, Mohmand District Sub-division Prang Ghar & Lower Dir and also with considerable numbers in Batkhela Swat, Mardan, Swabi and Peshawar. Utmankhels speak the same dialect of Pashtu called Yusufzai Pashto, Peshawari, Northeastern Pashto and belong to Sunni Islam. Utmankhel also live in Loralai and Zhob districts of Balochistan province and with a large number in Afghanistan.

The Utmankhel's tract lying between the Rud and Ambhar rivers, and thence, eastwards, the tract lying between the Swat river and the Peshawar district as far as the Ranizai and Sam Ranizai. It is peopled by the Utman Khel tribe, who appear to be Pathans of Kodai branch of the Karlani Pashtuns.

They migrated from north-west of the Suleman Range, and have in course of time found themselves in possession of their present country which they occupied in the sixteenth century, at the same time as the Yusafzai conquered Swat and the Tarkilani took possession of Bajaur District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

The tribe is a large one. They have always maintained complete independence, and pay tribute to no one. Their country is a network of bare hills and with the exception of some tracts of alluvial soil on the southern bank of the Rud river in KPK.

The tribe is divided into many clans and section which are constantly at feud with one another, and there does not appear to be much unanimity in the tribe as a whole. They keep themselves much aloof from their neighbours. The people of Total, however, a small tract bordering the Sam Ranizai, have intimate relations with the Sam Ranizai.

The small portion of Utmankhel country lying between total on the east , the southern watershed of the Swat river as far as Bazargai on the north , and the Swat river below Bazargai on the west is called Laman or Daman Utman Khel, and is under the Political Administration of the Peshawar District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

Major Clans of Utmankhel Tribe

There are about 10 or more major clans of Utmankhel tribe. Here is an alphabetical order list of major clans.
(i) Alizai (ii) Aseel (iii) Biazai (iv) Gorai (v) Ismail Khel (vi) Mandal (vii) Miangan (viii) Muttakai (ix) Peghozai(x) Sanizai (xi) Shamozai (xii) Stanadar and other hundreds of sub-clans/branches.

Major Sub-Tribes and Their Areas

  1. Aseel → They live in Barang and Targhao
  2. Bimmarai→ They live in Totai and Sama Ranizai (Malakand District)
  3. Boot Khel→They live in Ambar and Laman / Prang Ghar (Mohmand District)
  4. Gorai→ They Live in the Panjkora bed near Talash opposite Sharbatai
  5. Mandal >→ They live in Mandal Bajaur, Gosam Munda, Shaikhan Timergara, Moranay.
  6. Muttakai→ They live on the northern slopes of the Koh-i-Moor mountains
  7. Peghozai→ They live in Totai and Sama Ranizai (Malakand District)
  8. Sanizai→ They live in Totai and Sama Ranizai (Malakand District)
  9. Shamozai → They live in Lar Tras, Bar Tras, Bandagai, Kulala, Sharbatai and near Agra.

Major Native Areas

(1) Utmankhel Subdivision (2) Barang Subdivision (3) Ambar Utmankhel (4) Prang Ghar Tehsil (5) Dara Utmankhel (6) Gosam (7) Agra (8) Kharkai (9) Kohi Barmol (10) Mian Khan (11) Sangao (Mardan District) (12) Baizo Kharki.

Utmankheli Customs and Constitution

Utmankheli is a separate constitution and legislation of the Utmankhel tribe which is passed through Jirga system in non-written form to set a way of life. And no member of Utman khel tribe is considered above it until or unless it surpass or oppose Islamic rules.

If a government lawmaker participates in any Jirga of Utmankhel tribe, he’s informed that Utmankheli as a constitution guides in such a way. e.g if two villages are fighting on one hill claiming to be theirs. It will be decided in such a way that if the rain water from the hill flows one of the two village, that will be claimed as part of that village. In such decision making becomes easy.

Or if animals belonging to one family destroyed the crops of some other family and jirga is resolving the issue. So for this Utmankheli suggests that if it happened in winter, the owner of the animals will compensate. And if it happened in summer, the owner of the field was ought to take good of his crops.

There are so many legislation as these which suggest the life style for Utmankhels and is termed as Utmankheli.

History of Utmankhel Tribe

(continue)